What is an endocrinologist? Endocrinologists specialise in the treatment of problems and diseases of the endocrine glands and hormones. They typically focus on the treatment of hormonal imbalances, with the overall goal of restoring a normal balance of hormones in a patient's body. Common conditions treated by endocrinologists include menopause, diabetes, osteoporosis and thyroid diseases, while some sufferers - such as those living with diabetes - will need lifelong expert care.